Epididymal sperm aspiration is done in cases of obstructive azoospermia, Wherein there are no sperms in the ejaculate, however sperms are normally produced in the testes. One such example is congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD). It is one of the most common causes of obstructive azoospermia in men. Typically it is done in infertile males with semen analysis showing no sperms, normal testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound, normal serum FSH and Testosterone levels.
Under local anesthesia or general anesthesia, a scalp vein or thin needle is inserted in the region of Epididymis. Suction is created and the aspirated fluid is examined for presence of sperms under the microscope.
It is a minimally invasive procedure, hardly takes a few minutes and does not leave a scar etc.
There are no long term side effects of the procedure whatsoever.
Immediately post procedure, there might be slight pain over the injection site which may feel exactly like a pin prick. Pain killers may be given for a day or two.
Side effects of anaesthesia though rare are known to exist and should always be kept in mind. Nausea, vomiting etc may be experienced in the day of the surgery because of anaesthetic agents but usually subside after 6-8 hours.
A diagnostic epididymal sperm aspiration can be performed anytime. It confirms the presence of normal, motile sperms in the aspirate and also creates an opportunity for semen cryopreservation.
If already confirmed in the past, it can be carried out on the day of OPU (Oocyte retrieval). The sperms obtained are used on the same day for fertilizing oocytes by ICSI.